In the XXI century, the era of globalization and human migration, the problems concerning the phenomenon of bilingualism are of great interest in many countries. These problems are studied not only in the European Union (J. Maten, N. Kuhn, K. Staul, V. Overbeck , Bloomfield), where the number of bilinguals and polilinguals is already higher than that of monolinguals, but also by Russian researchers in linguistics, psychology, sociology, pedagogy and didactics (Zalevskaja , Vygotsky , Leontiev) .
For representatives of Russian and foreign science, the problems concerning the development of linguistic and methodological foundations of teaching a foreign language in artificial and natural conditions are very important. Study of the problems of bilingualism is related to one of the major phenomenon in modern linguistics – linguistic identity.
The central concept of this research is based on the theory of “secondary linguistic identity” – a term proposed by I. Khaleeva in order to underline the process of linguistic and psychological changes of people learning a foreign language.
It’s important to emphasize that our investigation draws the observation of the French part of bilingualism (the Russians speaking French) in order to compare the results of formation in two different conditions and the influence of this difference on their consciousness.
The fundamental differences in formation of the secondary linguistic identity of French-Russian natural and artificial bilinguals are analyzed at each of its levels described by Y. Karaulov in his work “Russian language and linguistic identity”: verbal- semantic, logical-cognitive and communicative levels.
In particular, at the logical-cognitive level, we conduct psycholinguistic analysis of the features of French language consciousness of bilinguals: the results will be described in this article.
The research supposes the analysis of questionnaires completed in French by bilinguals of three groups (Association experiment) and their classwork activities during the observation period:
1. The first group includes graduates of faculties of foreign languages of Russian universities.
2. The second group includes Russian immigrants in France: graduates of the French lyceum François Arago, Perpignan.
3. The third group includes native French speakers.
The data of Russian Association dictionary (Y Karaulov , G Cherkasova , N Ufimtseva ), as well as French Association dictionary, created by researchers of Novosibirsk State University in 2010 ( M. Debrene ), were also used during this research.